Carbon and coal dust

Wood-burning fireplaces and stoves

Particulate matter can be emitted by combustion during burning.

Carbon and coal dust

Materials in furniture

Foam that can be found in furniture can release formaldehyde gas.

Carpets, rugs and flooring

Some carpets, rugs and flooring emit formaldehyde, potentially throughout their life.

Scented candles

Some scented candles release benzene and formaldehyde into the air as they burn.

Pet dander and disintegrated faeces

Cats, dogs and other household pets can spread this microscopic material around the home.


Plants and flowers may release microscopic pollen into the air.

Outdoor air pollution

Tree pollen, vehicle exhaust fumes and particulate matter can enter and get trapped in the home.

Indoor paints

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) may be released as gaseous chemicals from paint.

Air fresheners

Household air fresheners can release VOCs and benzene with their fragrance.

Gas hobs and cooking fumes

Fumes and odours, such as Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), can be emitted by gas hobs and the cooking process.

Cleaning products

Household cleaning products can contain benzene, fumes and odours.